Bahan Ajar Bahasa Inggris Kelas XI SMA/SMK Siswa

Materi Factual Report

Sumber Gambar : pixabay.com

Definition of Factual Report

Factual report is a text which present some information about things, people, animals scientific phenomena or social condition based on the result of observation and analysis

Purpose of Factual Report

The purpose of the text is to give some information to the reader by stating facts.

Generic Structure of the Text

  1. General Facts (General classification). It contains ideas of topic that will inform in a text by specific facts.
  2. Description. It gives explanation from information given by details.

 Characteristic of The Text

  • Use general noun : Table, bird, house
  • Use relating verb : is, am, are, was, were, being, been, have, has, had
  • Use simple present : She lives in Jayapura
  • Has a proof : Proof of what is being describe
  • Object based on facts : People, animals, etc

 Example of The Text

Teks 1


 Covid-19 or Coronavirus Disease-2019 is an infectious disease caused by a new virus called SARS-Cov-2. This disease first identified in Wuhan, China, in the end of 2019. The virus widely spread over many countries and then in March 2020, WHO declared Covid-19 a pandemic.

This disease attacks respiratory system. Covid-19 also makes people who get infected experience several symptoms. The common symptoms are fever, dry cough, and tiredness. Some also experience aches, sore throat, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, headache, and loss of taste or smell. Meanwhile the serious symptoms are shortness of breath, chest pain, and loss of speech. However, there are many who do not experience symptoms.

It takes about 5-6 days to the symptoms to show. However, the incubation period takes 14 days. People who has mild to moderate illness usually can recover without hospitalization. Meanwhile those who experience serious symptoms have to seek medical attention.

The virus spreads through the droplets when infected people sneeze or cough. Therefore, WHO gives the way to prevent infection such as washing hands regularly with soap and water, avoiding touching face, covering mouth and nose while sneezing or coughing, staying at home, refraining from smoking, and practicing physical distancing.

taken from : Kompas.com

Text 2

A nail is a horn-like envelope covering the tips of the fingers and toes in humans, most non-human primates, and a few other mammals.

Nails are similar to claws in other animals. Fingernails and toenails are made of a tough protective protein called keratin. This protein is also found in the hooves and horns of different animals.

A healthy fingers nail has the function of protecting the finger trip. And the surrounding soft tissues from injuries. It also function as a tool, enabling for instance pulling out a splinter in one’s finger, and certain cutting or scraping actions.

Taken from Buku Erlangga kelas XI. P. 74

 Factual Report Verses Description Text

The purpose of the text is to give description of the object/participant. They both try to show rather than tell the reader about the factual condition.

What make different between factual report and description text is is the scope of the object/participant given. Description text based on writer’s opinion and describe more specific. General structure is identification and description